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How to cite?



Citaton (or In-text citation) - Brief details of your source of information within your text. Citation corresponds with the full details of the work given in reference list.

Example: "... according Pears and Shields [2013] plagiarism is a term that describes …"

Reference – The full publication details of the work cited. It allows the reader to access your source documents as quickly and easily as possible. It includes the full bibliographical information on sources so that the reader can identify and locate the work.

Example: PEARS, Richard a Graham SHIELDS. Cite them right: The essential referencing guide. 9th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. ISBN 978-1-137-27311-6.

Reference list – A list of references cited in your assignment. 

Secondary Referencing – Work mentioned in another author’s work (you have not actually seen this original source yourself). You cannot include them in your reference list.

Example: "Harvey (2010, cited in Lewis, 2012, p. 43) provides an excellent survey…"

Footnote – An explanatory note and/or source citation at the foot of the page.

Summarising – Providing a brief statement of the main points of the text known as summary. This differs from paraphrasing as it only lists the main points, leaving out the details.


There are 2 ways to incorporate information into your text:

Quotation (or Direct quotation) – The words or sentnces from another information source used within your text set in quotation mark and written in italics. You must always cite your source.

Paraphrasing – A restating of someone else‘s thoughts or ideas in your own words. You must always cite your source.

It is appropriate and advisable to use direct quotations rarely and paraphrasing more often.