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How to cite?

In-text referencing

In-text referencing allows the reader to access the source documents in order to verify the validity of your arguments and evidence on which they are based. You may use differnet reference methods. Different reference methods use different citation ordination in the reference list.

Numeric Reference Method

The documents cited are numbered in succession depending on first use in the text document which you refer to more than once in the text is listed under the same number.

Reference numbers are given in round or square brackets or in the upper index. In the brackets the page number where the specific information appears in the original text may also appear after the comma.

Author – date format (like Harvard)

The reference is appropriate to create by indicating the first entry information (mostly author or organization name), in the case of the work without author we indicate first words of the title name and issue date. This information is put in round or square brackets. Page number where specific information appears in the original document is put after the comma.


Method of continuous footnotes

Footnote – an explanatory note and/or source citation at the foot of the page. Numbered references to citations listed below the line on the same page. When you refer to a document multiple times in your text, use new serial number each time.

It is mainly used in the humanities.


Secondary Referencing

Work mentioned in another author’s work (you have not actually seen this original source yourself). You cannot include them in your reference list.

Example: "Harvey (2010, cited in Lewis, 2012, p. 43) provides an excellent survey…"


Reference list

Reference list is made in compliance with the reference method used in the text.

It contains only references of the documents used in the text.


Alphabetical sort

Citations are sorted in alphabetical order by author’s surname, date issue (starting with the earliest published).

Start with publication with the only author first, then release publications with co-authors.

Sometimes you may need to cite two (or more) publications by an author published in the same year. To distinguish between the items in the text, allocate lower case letters in alphabetical order after the publication date.


Numeric sort

The citations are numbered in ascending order, depending on first usage in the text (when multiple referencing to one document, use the same number).

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